CITSEE Study

Europeanisation through mobility: visa liberalisation and citizenship regimes

Simonida Kacarska
visa regime

Overall, the visa liberalisation negotiations have had diverse effects on the citizenship regimes of South Eastern Europe. While having contributed to resolving status-related issues of the Roma and displaced persons, there has been no major breakthrough in terms of substantive advancement of anti-discrimination policies. The pressure on the governments of the Western Balkans to take measures in the direction of limiting the freedom of movement of specific groups of citizens has added a layer of discrimination on the basis of ethnic background and social status. 

“Don’t worry, I do not come from an NGO, hence, I am not interested in rights”

       -EU member state expert investigating the treatment of persons illegally crossing the borders.

Media, Citizenship, and Political Agenda(s)

Davor Marko
media and citizenship

At the moment, based on the summarised trends of reporting on citizenship, it is obvious that the leading print media in these four countries do not offer enough space for discussion and open participation on citizenship and related topics. Print media, due to the uncertain future of the press, are strongly dependent on their political or economic patrons, and rather serve as legitimizers than informers, observers, or watchdogs. It is slightly different with the online media. Due to the penetration of Internet use in the region, and the opportunities it offers for citizens to take part in content creation and discussion, it could play a much important role in discussing the problems and issues related to the citizenship. But the impact of online media in the region of the former Yugoslavia is still uncertain and unexplored, and this could be the subject of future research.

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download here.

The Politics of Selecting by Origin in Post-Communist Southeast Europe

Marko Žilović
Street name changes

In deciding whether to seek access to a particular citizenship most people tend to be practically minded. However, the broader sum of these individual decisions, as well as the sheer symbolic potential of using citizenship to uphold special ties between a state and a particular group, have important implications for wider political issues, such as ethnic politics, the fortunes of political parties, control of diaspora organisations, and sometimes even the high international politics in the region.

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download

Imagining the nation in Serbia

Jelena Vasiljević
Graffitis in Belgrade

The changing citizenship regimes in Serbia illustrate the ways in which various narratives of nationhood run parallel to political changes, at times reinforcing them, at times creating obstacles for their implementation, but nevertheless providing a means by which they may be interpreted.

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download here.

The Janus face of Slovenian Citizenship

Tomaž Deželan
A statue on a Ljubljana bridge

The citizenship regime in Slovenia can seem to have two faces. For those who focus on its numerous malfunctions, the citizenship regime seems xenophobic, even apartheid-like. By contrast, those who focus on the initial determination characterise the system as progressive and civic.

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download here.

Defining the nation: constructing citizenship in the new Croatia

Viktor Koska
Old Zagreb

The Croatian citizenship legislation reveals the ongoing process of Croatian invention of, in the words of Rogers Brubaker, ‘the tradition of nationhood’ which is based on the idea that the Croatian state is a product of the “centennial” aspirations of the ethnic Croat community to have its own national state.

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download here.

Reinventing the state: (e)migration and citizenship in Albania

Gëzim Krasniqi
A mural on Skenderbej Square in Tirana

Albania’s rocky path to democracy, marked by state weakness and deep political polarisation, which ultimately led to the almost-total state collapse in 1997, prevented the country from reforming and reconstructing its legal constitutional order, including citizenship legislation.

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download here.

Macedonian Citizen: ‘Former Yugoslav’, Future European?

Ljubica Spaskovska
Old train station in Skopje

Citizenship in the former Yugoslav and the Macedonian context is yet to have its dimensions of status, rights and equality strengthened and its dimension of membership/belonging weakened in importance.

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download here.

Montenegrin mists: politics, citizenship and identity

Jelena Džankić
The Millenium Bridge in Podgorica

Citizenship policies in Montenegro over last twenty years were a peculiar variant of the post-Yugoslav model, in that citizenship was not used as a mechanism of ethnic homogenisation but instead of political manoeuvring. As a result, citizenship policies in Montenegro bore many traits of the changing political environment in which they were adopted; the environment framed through the processes of state and nation building. 

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download here.

Kosovo: between a ‘political club’ and a ‘divided house'

Gëzim Krasniqi
A motive from Pristina

Citizenship has been a central issue in Kosovo’s state-building agenda, which aims to serve as a link between a war-torn community of people and a new polity based on principles of equality and all inclusiveness, and as a tool of political integration within the new political entity, which aims at replacing ethnic, religious and social divisions.

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series  and is available for download here.

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