Montenegro

Montenegro

The Politics of Selecting by Origin in Post-Communist Southeast Europe

Marko Žilović
Street name changes

In deciding whether to seek access to a particular citizenship most people tend to be practically minded. However, the broader sum of these individual decisions, as well as the sheer symbolic potential of using citizenship to uphold special ties between a state and a particular group, have important implications for wider political issues, such as ethnic politics, the fortunes of political parties, control of diaspora organisations, and sometimes even the high international politics in the region.

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download

Sportizenship: the complex links between citizenship, sports and national identity

Jelena Dzankic
Citizenship and sports

Sport is not only a manifestation of a physical contest. It is also a manifestation of cultural and national elements of a society. National sporting contests are often said to instil a sense of community in a state. By attending and supporting different sporting events, people reinforce the identity dimension of citizenship. Supporting a team emphasises an individual’s link to his or her polity, be it a city, a sub-state entity or a country.

With the Olympic buzz in the air, I often come to think about states, and flags, and the feelings that the exercise of physical competition inspires. Over the thirty years of my Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav life those states, flags and feelings have changed. Many times. I remember when at the Olympics I cheered the country whose tricolour flag had a big red star in the middle.

The afterlives of the Yugoslav red passport

Stef Jansen
YU passport

Amongst broad layers of the populations in BiH and Serbia, I found over the years, the SFRY passport allowed people to articulate resentment of their current entrapment in terms of their own past, both remembered and misremembered. Notwithstanding its uniqueness on a global stage, they asserted an entitlement to smooth visa-free mobility like the one they had lost. The red passport allowed everyone who was old enough, regardless of how much they had actually travelled, to say that they could have.'Normal lives' in Yugoslavia, then, were not only recalled in terms of living standards, order and welfare, but also of what we could call a sense of geopolitical dignity. Here, the red passport joined forces with Tito.

During a summer dawn in 2005, our šinobus, the small local train from Subotica (in Serbia) to Szeged (in Hungary) suffered engine failure in a village just south of the new EU-funded €10m high-tech Hungarian-Serbian border post.

Subversive Forum: What is the future of Europe and its citizens?

Nick Holdstock
Subversive Forum

The 5th Zagreb Subversive Festival included the Subversive Film Festival, an international conference named The Future of Europe at which leading stars of the local and international intellectual and activist scene will gather, such as Slavoj Žižek, Samir Amin, Tariq Ali, G.C. Spivak, Michael Hardt, Gianni Vattim, Stéphane Hessel, the Subversive Forum – a platform for alternative social mobilization, and the Balkan Forum in which over forty organisations, trade unions and individuals will come together in an attempt to lay the foundations for future collaboration and networking in both European and worldwide movements with the aim of further integration.

 

Nick Holdstock attended the Subversive Forum in Zagreb from May 13th-May 18th. In the following piece he revisits some of the themes and questions that this gathering of intellectuals, academics and activists considered during the Forum.

The European Crisis

Can money buy citizenship?

Jelena Džankić
Citizenship and money

A number of countries facilitate the naturalisation of wealthy individuals who invest in their economy. This practice is called ‘investor citizenship’, ‘citizenship by investment’, or ‘economic citizenship’. Investor citizenship can be obtained either at the authorities’ discretion, or through specific programs which lay out in detail the amount of the investment and other criteria for naturalisation.

Just the other day I was watching the hit musical ‘Mamma Mia’, and I was reminded of the lines of one of the leading songs: ‘Money, money, money… always sunny, in the rich men’s world’. The song refers to the lavish lifestyle that money can provide one with. Yet money can literally take a rich man to a sunnier place.

Another Decade of Roma Exclusion?

Marginalisation

Though many states continue to emphasise their commitment to improving the Roma’s live, it remains difficult to assess the success of many of these initiatives, as there is usually poor monitoring of these projects’ outcomes.

The constitutions of most European countries contain some form of commitment to ensuring the rights of minorities, as do the laws of supranational bodies such as the European Union and the United Nations.

Europeanise.me – Montenegro changes its citizenship law

Jelena Džankić
A long road to the EU

Along with the adoption of the Election Law in September 2011, the process of Europeanisation (through EU’s political conditionality) has also yielded a change in Montenegro’s citizenship legislation, resulting in a facilitated naturalisation for citizens of the former Yugoslav republics.

When Montenegro received its candidate country status in November 2010, the European Commission (EC) recommended that the country fulfil seven conditions before opening accession talks. The requirement that topped the EC’s list was the need to adopt a new Election Law.

Montenegro and Serbia: squinting at dual citizenship

squinting at dual citizenship

Citizenship struggles in Montenegro and between Montenegro and Serbia continue.

When Serbia and Montenegro met in October 2008 to discuss the issue of dual citizenship, both parties were confident that an agreement would be reached by the end of the month. Two and half years later, the issue is still unresolved.

Escaping the Balkans? After visa liberalisation

A reflection of stop sign; a photo by Alf Thomas

The rise in asylum seekers following visa liberalisation in the Western Balkans.

The EU accession process has brought a variety of changes to citizens of the Western Balkans, perhaps the greatest of which has been the easing of visa restrictions.

Montenegrin mists: politics, citizenship and identity

Jelena Džankić
The Millenium Bridge in Podgorica

Citizenship policies in Montenegro over last twenty years were a peculiar variant of the post-Yugoslav model, in that citizenship was not used as a mechanism of ethnic homogenisation but instead of political manoeuvring. As a result, citizenship policies in Montenegro bore many traits of the changing political environment in which they were adopted; the environment framed through the processes of state and nation building. 

This is an extended summary of a longer paper that was originally published in the CITSEE Working Paper Series and is available for download here.

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